This impasse has made it impossible to launch new wto negotiations beyond the Doha Development Round. As a result, there are more and more bilateral free trade agreements between governments. [48] As of July 2012[update], there were several negotiating groups in the WTO system for agricultural trade negotiations currently at an impasse. [49] Section II of the Agreement contains innovative provisions on special and differential treatment linking implementation by developing and least-developed countries to the acquisition of capacity to implement the Agreement for the first time in the history of the WTO (see box). According to a 2017 study published in the Journal of International Economic Law, «almost all recent [preferential trade agreements) (ASPs) explicitly refer to the WTO, often dozens of times across multiple chapters. Similarly, in many of these SATs, we find that essential parts of the treaty`s wording – sometimes most of a chapter – are copied verbatim from a WTO agreement. the WTO`s presence in the SAA has increased over time. [20] The General Agreement on Trade in Services was created to extend the multilateral trading system to the services sector, just as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) provides for such a system for trade in goods. The agreement entered into force in January 1995. In the two years since its entry into force, 141 of the 164 countries have ratified the agreement, representing 86% of WTO members (most-favoured-nation application of the TFA). 12 of the other 22 countries are DDCs, while the other ten are developing countries. In fact, nine countries have neither ratified the TFA nor notified Category A, B and C commitments. This means that the level of development can have a direct impact either on the complexity of legal systems or on the ability of countries to assess what they need to do, which translates into an appeal to donors and development partners to assist in legal proceedings. On the positive side, seven DDCs have already communicated their indicative dates, although the deadline still expires in two years (22 February 2021), giving donors a clear signal of their commitment to implement the agreement.